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dc.contributor.author
Bozzano, Graziella
dc.contributor.author
Martín de Nascimento, Jacobo
dc.contributor.author
Spoltore, Daniela V.
dc.contributor.author
Violante, Roberto Antonio
dc.date.available
2018-11-02T20:15:35Z
dc.date.issued
2017-06
dc.identifier.citation
Bozzano, Graziella; Martín de Nascimento, Jacobo; Spoltore, Daniela V.; Violante, Roberto Antonio; Los cañones submarinos del Margen Continental Argentino: una síntesis sobre su génesis y dinámica sedimentaria; Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología; Latin American journal of sedimentology and basin analysis; 24; 1; 6-2017; 85-111
dc.identifier.issn
1669-7316
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/11336/63554
dc.description.abstract
Los cañones submarinos son los mayores rasgos erosivos de los márgenes continentales tanto activos como pasivos. Desde los albores del siglo XX, representan un fructífero tema de debate e investigación por su gran relevancia como agentes de transferencia de sedimento y materia orgánica de continente a océano, por ser lugar de surgencia de aguas profundas, elevada producción primaria y riqueza en biodiversidad, y por ser potenciales factores de riesgo en las rupturas de infraestructuras submarinas. El presente trabajo comprende una revisión de las principales teorías de formación y evolución de los cañones submarinos así como de los procesos de interacción entre dinámica oceanográfica, flujos sedimentarios y morfologías asociadas a los cañones. El objetivo es presentar una síntesis del estado del conocimiento sobre los cañones del Margen Continental Argentino (MCA), discutir su formación y evolución en el marco de los modelos genéticos más aceptados en la actualidad así como proponer una hipótesis de trabajo vinculada a la dinámica sedimentaria del Cañón Mar del Plata (MdP), el más estudiado del margen. Este cañón, como la mayoría de los del MCA, por un lado se desarrolla exclusivamente en el talud (cañón ciego) y por el otro interrumpe un gran sistema depositacional contornítico relacionado con la circulación oceanográfica regional. De aquí que su génesis en principio se explicaría por el modelo de erosión retrogradante a partir de fenómenos de inestabilidad del talud, pero además podría funcionar como trampa de sedimento captando el material transportado por el Agua Antártica Intermedia a lo largo del talud medio. Se propone que en la Terraza Ewing, donde el cañón tiene su cabecera, podrían generarse corrientes turbidíticas que afectarían a la evolución y dinámica del cañón. Estas corrientes se encauzarían cañón abajo contribuyendo a profundizar su valle y a conformar su trazado en parte sinuoso. En los sistemas de cañones Patagonia otros factores podrían activar la génesis de los cañones submarinos. Se ha sugerido la posibilidad que irregularidades morfológicas provocadas por la acción erosiva de las corrientes contorníticas sobre el fondo puedan dar origen a los cañones de esta zona. Este mecanismo podría no limitarse exclusivamente al sistema Patagonia sino aplicarse a los demás sistemas de cañones argentinos ya que el MCA está intersectado por intensas corrientes de contorno que operan a diferentes profundidades.
dc.description.abstract
Submarine canyons are the most outstanding geomorphologic features of continental margins. They play a fundamental role in transferring sediment and organic matter from shallow to deep waters. Also, they influence oceanographic and sedimentary processes, interact with productivity and benthic ecosystems, and pose a serious threat to seafloor infrastructures. Submarine canyons have been described as steep-walled, sinuous valleys with V-shaped cross sections, axes sloping outward as continuously as river-cut land canyons and relief comparable to even the largest of land canyons. The understanding of the origin and evolution of submarine canyons has been matter of intense debate since the first geologists observed them characterizing both passive and active margins. Canyons have been interpreted as (1) the off-shore prolongation of river systems that during low sealevel stages migrated seaward; (2) the product of the erosion caused by gravity dense flows- called turbidity currents- produced at the shelf-slope transition; (3) the deepening of pre-existing tectonic structures (e.g. faults) and (4) the result of slope instability combined with headward erosion. The first model only explains the genesis of the breaching-shelf canyons that connect with river systems, but does not resolve the formation of those that are unrelated to fluvial input. Turbidity currents take place at the shelf break when sufficient amount of sediment is injected into the water column by (re) suspension, resulting in a flow with higher density than the surrounding waters. These high-density flows, moving down-slope under the effect of gravity, cut the valleys that finally evolve into submarine canyons. Turbidity currents, though effective agents of erosion, do not account for the formation of slopeconfined canyons. From the other side, tectonic control can apply for limited examples of canyons, which are located in specific geological contexts. Continental slopes often show scars that are left behind by instability events. Mass wasting processes may arise from fluid escape, sediment over pressure and steepening or be triggered by seismic shocks. These initial scars would evolve into rills and then into valleys by a process that combines localized slope failures, sediment funneling and headward erosion. According to this genetic model, slope-confined and shelf-breaching canyons are, respectively, the early and mature stages in the evolution of canyons, which starts with a pre-canyon rill that advances upslope by retrogressive failure and ends with the canyon cutting the shelf break. The objective of this contribution is to review the knowledge on the submarine canyons from the Argentine Continental Margin and to suggest a working hypothesis concerning the sedimentary dynamics of the Mar del Plata Canyon, by far the best known canyon of this margin. Four main systems have been described: La Plata River, Colorado-Negro (or Bahía Blanca), Ameghino (or Chubut) and Patagonia (or Deseado). Mar del Plata Canyon, belonging to the first of these systems, cuts the slope between ~1000 m (Ewing Terrace, middle slope) and ~3900 m (lower slope-continental rise transition) as a deep valley with steep walls. In its proximal sector, between 1100 and 3000 m, it shows a sinuous path whereas the thalweg is mostly linear between 3000 an 3900 m. Seismic profiles, obtained during the Meteor research cruise M78/3a, demonstrate no evidences of incisions that could suggest past fluvial connections with the canyon head. For this reason, the origin of this canyon has been explained as an example of headward erosion. During the Holocene, the sedimentation rate inside the canyon is much higher than outside. This occurs because the large amount of sediment mobilized by bottom currents along the Ewing Terrace is intercepted by the canyon. In contrast, during the Late Glacial and deglaciation phase, turbidite accumulation has been attributed to slope instability of the drift deposits at the southern flank of the canyon. In this study, we put forward the following working hypothesis: the canyon most probably generated from slope instability and retrogressive erosion. However, when the valley moved upslope and etched the Ewing Terrace (middle slope), turbidity currents might have been produced at this water depth (1000-1200 meters) by the peculiar oceanographic dynamics driven by the interaction between bottom currents and seafloor. If confirmed by future investigations, this hypothesis would account both for the turbidite deposition and the sinuous path of the canyon in its proximal sector, which is more typical, although not exclusive, for canyons routed by turbidity currents. The detailed morphological investigations, performed in the Patagonia Canyons system by a Spanish research group in 2011, add a stimulating source of discussion about canyon formation in the Argentine Margin. These authors have proposed that topographic irregularities shaped by scars resulting from the sea-floor erosion under strong contour currents and the step separating terraces located at different water depths, might be the precursors for a pre-canyon incision. This hypothesis, of great relevance in a continental margin where downslope and along-slope sedimentary processes often coexist and interact, probably apply not only to the Patagonia but also to the other, less investigated, canyons systems of the Argentine Margin.
dc.format
application/pdf
dc.language.iso
spa
dc.publisher
Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología
dc.rights
info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.uri
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/ar/
dc.subject
Cañones Submarinos
dc.subject
Margenes Continentales
dc.subject
Mar Argentino
dc.subject.classification
Meteorología y Ciencias Atmosféricas
dc.subject.classification
Ciencias de la Tierra y relacionadas con el Medio Ambiente
dc.subject.classification
CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS
dc.title
Los cañones submarinos del Margen Continental Argentino: una síntesis sobre su génesis y dinámica sedimentaria
dc.title
The submarine canyons of the Argentine Continental Margin: a review of their formation and sedimentary dynamics
dc.type
info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.type
info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo
dc.type
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.date.updated
2018-10-19T15:06:52Z
dc.identifier.eissn
1851-4979
dc.journal.volume
24
dc.journal.number
1
dc.journal.pagination
85-111
dc.journal.pais
Argentina
dc.description.fil
Fil: Bozzano, Graziella. Ministerio de Defensa. Armada Argentina. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
dc.description.fil
Fil: Martín de Nascimento, Jacobo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas; Argentina
dc.description.fil
Fil: Spoltore, Daniela V.. Ministerio de Defensa. Armada Argentina. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval; Argentina
dc.description.fil
Fil: Violante, Roberto Antonio. Ministerio de Defensa. Armada Argentina. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval; Argentina
dc.journal.title
Latin American journal of sedimentology and basin analysis
dc.relation.alternativeid
info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/url/http://ppct.caicyt.gov.ar/index.php/lajsba/article/view/10504
dc.relation.alternativeid
info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/url/http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=381753609006


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