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dc.contributor.author
Snider, Graydon
dc.contributor.author
Weagle, Crystal L.
dc.contributor.author
Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.
dc.contributor.author
Ring, Amanda
dc.contributor.author
Ritchie, Yvonne
dc.contributor.author
Stone, Emily
dc.contributor.author
Walsh, Ainsley
dc.contributor.author
Akoshile, Clement
dc.contributor.author
Anh, Nguyen Xuan
dc.contributor.author
Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar
dc.contributor.author
Brook, Jeff
dc.contributor.author
Qonitan, Fatimah D.
dc.contributor.author
Dong, Jinlu
dc.contributor.author
Griffith, Derek
dc.contributor.author
He, Kebin
dc.contributor.author
Holben, Brent N.
dc.contributor.author
Kahn, Ralph
dc.contributor.author
Lagrosas, Nofel
dc.contributor.author
Lestari, Puji
dc.contributor.author
Ma, Zongwei
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Misra, Amit
dc.contributor.author
Norford, Leslie K.
dc.contributor.author
Quel, Eduardo Jaime
dc.contributor.author
Salam, Abdus
dc.contributor.author
Schichtel, Bret
dc.contributor.author
Segev, Lior
dc.contributor.author
Tripathi, Sachchida
dc.contributor.author
Wang, Chien
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Yu, Chao
dc.contributor.author
Zhang, Qiang
dc.contributor.author
Zhang, Yuxuan
dc.contributor.author
Brauer, Michael
dc.contributor.author
Cohen, Aaron
dc.contributor.author
Gibson, Mark D.
dc.contributor.author
Liu, Yang
dc.contributor.author
Martins, J. Vanderlei
dc.contributor.author
Rudich, Yinon
dc.contributor.author
Martin, Randall V.
dc.date.available
2018-04-17T20:01:02Z
dc.date.issued
2016-08
dc.identifier.citation
Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; et al.; Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN; Copernicus Publications; Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics; 16; 15; 8-2016; 9629-9653
dc.identifier.issn
1680-7316
dc.identifier.uri
http://hdl.handle.net/11336/42376
dc.description.abstract
The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD). We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution±SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20%±11%), crustal material (13.4%±9.9%), equivalent black carbon (11.9%±8.4%), ammonium nitrate (4.7%±3.0%), sea salt (2.3%±1.6%), trace element oxides (1.0%±1.1%), water (7.2%±3.3%) at 35% RH, and residual matter (40%±24%). Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1μg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17μg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2μg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 μg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7μg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8μg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur, India). Comparison of SPARTAN vs. coincident measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network at Mammoth Cave yielded a high degree of consistency for daily PM2.5 (r2 = 0.76, slope = 1.12), daily sulfate (r2 = 0.86, slope = 1.03), and mean fractions of all major PM2.5 components (within 6%). Major ions generally agree well with previous studies at the same urban locations (e.g. sulfate fractions agree within 4% for 8 out of 11 collocation comparisons). Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas (e.g. Singapore, Kanpur, Hanoi, and Dhaka) are apparent from high Zn:Al ratios. The expected water contribution to aerosols is calculated via the hygroscopicity parameter κv for each filter. Mean aggregate values ranged from 0.15 (Ilorin) to 0.28 (Rehovot). The all-site parameter mean is 0.20±0.04. Chemical composition and water retention in each filter measurement allows inference of hourly PM2.5 at 35% relative humidity by merging with nephelometer measurements. These hourly PM2.5 estimates compare favourably with a beta attenuation monitor (MetOne) at the nearby US embassy in Beijing, with a coefficient of variation r2 = 0.67 (n = 3167), compared to r2 = 0.62 when κv was not considered. SPARTAN continues to provide an open-access database of PM2.5 compositional filter information and hourly mass collected from a global federation of instruments.
dc.format
application/pdf
dc.language.iso
eng
dc.publisher
Copernicus Publications
dc.rights
info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.uri
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/ar/
dc.subject
Spartan
dc.subject.classification
Astronomía
dc.subject.classification
Ciencias Físicas
dc.subject.classification
CIENCIAS NATURALES Y EXACTAS
dc.title
Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN
dc.type
info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.type
info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo
dc.type
info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.date.updated
2018-03-12T19:32:19Z
dc.identifier.eissn
1680-7324
dc.journal.volume
16
dc.journal.number
15
dc.journal.pagination
9629-9653
dc.journal.pais
Alemania
dc.journal.ciudad
Gottingen
dc.description.fil
Fil: Snider, Graydon. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Weagle, Crystal L.. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Ring, Amanda. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Ritchie, Yvonne. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Stone, Emily. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Walsh, Ainsley. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Akoshile, Clement. University Of Ilorin; Nigeria
dc.description.fil
Fil: Anh, Nguyen Xuan. Vietnamese Academy Of Science And Technology; Vietnam
dc.description.fil
Fil: Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar. National University Of Singapore; Singapur
dc.description.fil
Fil: Brook, Jeff. University of Toronto; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Qonitan, Fatimah D.. Institut Teknologi Bandung; Indonesia
dc.description.fil
Fil: Dong, Jinlu. Tsinghua University; China
dc.description.fil
Fil: Griffith, Derek. The Council For Scientific And Industrial Research; Sudáfrica
dc.description.fil
Fil: He, Kebin. Tsinghua University; China
dc.description.fil
Fil: Holben, Brent N.. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Goddart Institute for Space Studies; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Kahn, Ralph. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Goddart Institute for Space Studies; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Lagrosas, Nofel. Manila University; Filipinas
dc.description.fil
Fil: Lestari, Puji. Institut Teknologi Bandung; Indonesia
dc.description.fil
Fil: Ma, Zongwei. Nanjing University; China
dc.description.fil
Fil: Misra, Amit. Indian Institute Of Technology; India
dc.description.fil
Fil: Norford, Leslie K.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Quel, Eduardo Jaime. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina
dc.description.fil
Fil: Salam, Abdus. University Of Dhaka; Bangladesh
dc.description.fil
Fil: Schichtel, Bret. State University of Colorado - Fort Collins; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Segev, Lior. Weizmann Institute Of Science Israel; Israel
dc.description.fil
Fil: Tripathi, Sachchida. Indian Institute Of Technology; India
dc.description.fil
Fil: Wang, Chien. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Yu, Chao. University Of Emory. Rollins School Of Public Health; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Zhang, Qiang. Tsinghua University; China
dc.description.fil
Fil: Zhang, Yuxuan. Tsinghua University; China
dc.description.fil
Fil: Brauer, Michael. University of British Columbia; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Cohen, Aaron. Health Effects Institute; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Gibson, Mark D.. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá
dc.description.fil
Fil: Liu, Yang. University Of Emory. Rollins School Of Public Health; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Martins, J. Vanderlei. University of Maryland; Estados Unidos
dc.description.fil
Fil: Rudich, Yinon. Weizmann Institute Of Science Israel; Israel
dc.description.fil
Fil: Martin, Randall V.. Dalhousie University Halifax; Canadá. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Estados Unidos
dc.journal.title
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
dc.relation.alternativeid
info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/doi/http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-9629-2016
dc.relation.alternativeid
info:eu-repo/semantics/altIdentifier/url/https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/9629/2016/


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